Types of fish in Kentucky
Most of the time when you hear about a minnow, it's from a fishermen talking about bait fish. Many of the small stream fish in Kentucky are commonly used as bait. Kentucky has a large diversity of small stream fish. Minnows, Shiners, and Dace normally swim in schools. Some prefer slow pools and other like faster moving water. Some will visit large rivers and other stay in small headwater creeks. Minnows, Shiners, and Dace are a must for a stream aquarium, they occupy the mid-section of the tank and do well with darters. Caution must be used when collecting and transporting these fish as they are not as hardy as darters. It's best to collect these in the spring or fall. Listed here are some of the more common stream fish found in Kentucky. Visit the KDFWR website to find stream fish in your area @
Scarlet Shiner, Lythrurus fasciolaris
Photo courtesy of NANFA
Inhabits clear upland streams of small to medium size over rock substrate in or adjacent to riffles, but often in pools during midwinter and the summer spawning season. Also in large streams and rivers in areas of moderate to strong flow (1). The Scarlet shiner is found in many creeks throughout Kentucky. Males show beautiful colors, especially during spawning season. They maintain some color and have a unique 'tiger stripe' pattern that can be seen in the aquarium. These fish are great for the stream style community aquarium. They are, however, very fragile and care must be taken in capturing and transporting them to ensure survival. Grows to 3 1/2inches and do well in small schools.
Occupies medium to large-size streams and rivers that are permanently flowing and of moderate to high gradient. Usually in or adjacent to rocky riffles in swift current or around cover in the form of logs and boulders. Also in the main channels of big rivers in flowing water (1). The Spotfin Shiner is generally distributed throughout most of Kentucky, except far western KY. They show beautiful colors in the creeks, but generally maintain a silver color in captivity. However, they are a great addition to the stream aquarium. They are hardy and look great with schools of other fish. They grow to nearly 5inches, so a larger aquarium may be needed.
Emerald Shiner, Notropis atherinoides
Inhabits medium to large-size streams, rivers, and big rivers where it is typically found over firm sand or gravel in pools or areas with some flow. Also in impoundments and floodplain lakes. In Kentucky, the Emerald Shiner is generally distributed in the state, found in large creeks and main channels of rivers. They are absent from the upper Cumberland River drainage. This fish doesn't show much color, but has a long silver shape. They make good tank mates in aquariums and are fairly hardy. They will give a unique look to a school of minnows/shiners. Grows to 5inches.
Silver Shiner, Notropis photogenis
Inhabits medium to large-size streams and rivers where the water is clear, the gradient moderate to high, and the bottom of clean rocky substrates. Normally occurs in schools in deep swift raceways or in pools just above or below riffles (1). Similar to the Emerald Shiner, but it has 2 black crescents between the nostrils. The Silver Shiner is common in mid to eastern Kentucky. This fish doesn't show much color, but has a long silver shape. They make good tank mates in aquariums and are fairly hardy. They will give a unique look to a school of minnows/shiners. Grows to 5 1/2inches.
Frequents clear, cool waters over a rock bottom in small or large-size upland streams and rivers. Usually in pools with noticeable current, occasionally in riffles (1). In Ketucky, the Rosyface Shiner is common in much of the eastern part of the state. Found in the upper and middle Cumberland, Kentucky River, Licking River, and others. During spawning, the head/face of the fish will turn a reddish color. The Rosyface Shiner is a great addition to the stream aquarium and one of my favorite shiners. Care needs to be taken in capture and transport of these fish as they can be fragile. Grows to 3 1/2inches.
Inhabits small, often tiny, upland headwater creeks, streams, and spring branches that have permanent flow, clear, cool water, and silt-free sand/gravel bottoms. Waters inhabited are invariably shaded and submergent vegetation may be present. Usually in pools with some flow or at the crests and bases of riffles (1). In Kentucky, the SRBD is found throughout most river systems that have cool headwater creeks with good flow, including: Cumberland River, Kentucky, Green River, and other. They generally are not common in western KY or the lower Licking and Kentucky rivers. These fish are stunning when found during the spring spawning season. Their bellys will turn bright red and their fins will be yellow. In captivity the red-belly will come and go, depending on the excitement level. They are great additions to a stream aquarium, and one of the most colorful Kentucky stream fish. Grows to 3 1/2inches.
Occupies pools with current and the bases of riffles in small to medium-size headwater creeks and streams of low to moderate gradient, occurring over a sand or mixed sand and gravel substrate in water 15-80cm deep. Water may be clear or turbid, and many streams inhabited are devoid of shade-producing riparian vegetation (1). The Silverjaw Minnow is common in most of the river systems in central Kentucky and eastern Kentucky. It is also found in the Tradewater River system. This fish can be distinguished by the large silver chambers on its cheek. Though unique, this fish does not do well in an aquarium. They usually do not last long. I have made several attempts to keep this fish in captivity, but they normally only last a few months. Grows to 4inches.
Most frequently taken in pools with current over a gravel or sand bottom in lowland creeks and small streams… Also in shoreline areas of lowland lakes and big rivers. Tolerant of turbidity, siltation, fluctuations in water level, wide ranges in temperature, and other physicochemical factors. Clear upland streams and rapid current are avoided (1). In Kentucky, the Red Shiner is found only in western KY. They have a limited distribution. Males are colorful in spawning. Grows to 3 1/2inches. I have no personal experience on this fish in captivity.